Thus is Cicero’s praise of Socrates, that he brought philosophy down from heaven into the lives and hearths of men, to be judged rather meagre unless we understand it as saying that philosophy can bring no benefit to our lives and our homes without, once descended, exerting all its energy to ascend once again back up into heaven.
The brief space of a dissertation is hardly suitable to the treatment of so august an object of enquiry. I will attempt to do that by first discussing the concepts usual to the physics contained in the science of astronomy.
All physicists before him regarded the relationship between the planets and the sun as a true one, i.e. What Newton did was to compare the magnitude of gravity shown by experience for bodies forming part of our earth with the magnitude of celestial motions; he then proceeded to deal with everything else using mathematical reasoning from geometry and calculus.1 We must be especially wary of this binding of physics with mathematics; we must beware of confusing pure mathematical grounds with physical ones; namely, of blindly taking lines deployed by geometry as helps to construction in proving its theorems for forces or force directions.
We must surely all agree that mathematics as a whole is not merely ideal or formal, but no less real and physical.2 The causes behind mathematics’ magnitudes are grounds, which means they belong to nature and when they are comprehended as such, they are laws of nature.
Pelvis rotation, thorax rotation, pelvis side bend and pelvis rotation at impact were all significantly different between groups, with the Lo-HTV group being more side bent tor the trail side and more open at impact.
These results suggest that world class golfers can successfully use either the low or high HTV technique for a successful swing.
One word of advice: keep your eye on the term ‘centrifugal force’. The spirited advocacy of a philosophical physics (or physical philosophy) overcoming mechanics and mathematics. A vital reminder of the importance of all these issues in Hegel’s thought. Hegel All of nature’s earthly creations show their inadequacy in the face of her first force, gravity.
Hegel, Jena, 1801 translated from the Latin original by David Healan Berlin and Yokohama, 2006 [Warm thanks to Wolfgang Neuser for the original stimulus to undertake this project.
Later, Newton was celebrated for proving these laws not from physical, but from geometrical grounds, and also, despite that, for integrating astronomy into physics.
Now Newton certainly did not introduce the force of gravity, which he wants to identify with centripetal or attractive force, into this part of physics.