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The Montessori method views the child as the one who is naturally eager for knowledge and capable of initiating learning in a supportive, thoughtfully prepared learning environment.It attempts to develop children physically, socially, emotionally and cognitively.
The first plane extends from birth to around six years of age.
During this period, Montessori observed that the child undergoes striking physical and psychological development.
In addition to offering access to the Montessori materials appropriate to the age of the children, the environment should exhibit the following characteristics: Montessori observed four distinct periods, or "planes", in human development, extending from birth to 6 years, from 6 to 12, from 12 to 18, and from 18 to 24.
She saw different characteristics, learning modes, and developmental imperatives active in each of these planes and called for educational approaches specific to each period.
Montessori described the young child's behavior of effortlessly assimilating the sensorial stimuli of his or her environment, including information from the senses, language, culture, and the development of concepts with the term "absorbent mind".
She believed that this is a power unique to the first plane, and that it fades as the child approached age six.Montessori saw universal, innate characteristics in human psychology which her son and collaborator Mario Montessori identified as "human tendencies" in 1957.There is some debate about the exact list, but the following are clearly identified: In the Montessori approach, these human tendencies are seen as driving behaviour in every stage of development, and education should respond to and facilitate their expression.Maria Montessori decided to move to Città di Castello, where she lived for two years and where she refined her methodology together with Alice Franchetti.In that period, she published her book in Città di Castello.Montessori education returned to the United States in 1960 and has since spread to thousands of schools there.Montessori continued to extend her work during her lifetime, developing a comprehensive model of psychological development from birth to age 24, as well as educational approaches for children ages 0 to 3, 3 to 6, and 6 to 12.The Franchetti Barons financed the publication of the book, and the methodology had the name "Method Franchetti-Montessori".Alice Franchetti died in 1911 at the age of 37 years old.The first-plane child is seen as a concrete, sensorial explorer and learner engaged in the developmental work of psychological self-construction and building functional independence.Montessori introduced several concepts to explain this work, including the absorbent mind, sensitive periods, and normalization.