In wireless sensor network, nodes are uniformly or stochastically (randomly) deployed in the target region.Interconnection of nodes in a decentralized fashion without following any preexisting infrastructure is named as an ad hoc network.The major energy sources of these miniature sensor nodes are either energy storage devices like batteries or energy scavenging devices like vibration or a combination of both.
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A typical node is made up of a mote and a sensor board along with battery and a memory device.
It continued to explore this technology by funding some prominent research projects, for example, Smart Dust  and Network Embedded System Technology .
Some other important real-world applications/projects of WSN  are Wave Monitoring , Ocean Water Monitoring , Zebra Net , Cattle Herding , and neu RFon .
WSN technology that is encapsulating such a long list of qualities is now in action with lots of mind-blowing applications by indulging it in various fabrics of life.
The cradle of WSN research was first nourished by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) through the military applications.
In all of these operations, special techniques should be employed to tactfully manage the constraint resources of wireless sensor network (WSN).
Among these constraint resources, energy conservation is the core issue.
The required environmental physical quantity is sensed by the source node(s) and is disseminated through the network up-to-the data fusion centre or base station.
The information so obtained can be used in Ethernet-based networks as well as worldwide by connecting the sink to the IP-based network .